Literally, a curriculum vitae is a "running of life," or what a person has been doing with his life.  A curriculum vitae (c.v.) is usually used by academics and includes education, experience, professional affiliations, and publications.  A c.v. is much like a resume, except that the emphasis is not on describing jobs (Spanish 101 or English 101 are pretty universal in the academic world, and unless there are special circumstances, do not need explaining); rather, a c.v. emphasizes a person's past and present academic pursuits (such as involvement in conferences and publishing papers and books).  Most non-academics use resumes.