Logical Fallacies
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KSU   -   English 1101/55 & 57   -   Mr. Hagin   -   Fall 2002   -   Revised: 27 November 2002
CRC
 
 
Listed below are links to 40 logical fallacies.  Click on the one you like to access definitions, clarifications, and examples.  You may use any of this information on the logical fallacies test.  The fallacies are classified by their types so you can review similar-sounding terms.  The links are listed in an order that generates cumulative understanding (so you might want to read the links in each category at the top to better understand the links near the bottom).

Remember that logic does not solve every problem in the world, nor does it answer all of your questions.  Logic can, however, allow us to generate logical arguments that will be difficult to defeat.
 
 
Logical Fallacies Links
One of the most important aspects of effective persuasion is avoiding being caught in the traps of logical fallacies.  The word “fallacy” comes from Latin, meaning “deceit,” “trick,” or “fraud.”  Although sometimes these types of errors are hard to catch, learning to recognize logical fallacies can help you to be a better writer, listener, student, and voter.  Don’t be fooled by the twisted rhetoric of another.  Likewise, you need to avoid misleading your own audience when you write persuasively.
 

 
 
 EMOTIONAL APPEALS
 
 DICTION 
 
 Audience (Flattery)
 
 Distortion
 
 Bandwagon Appeal
 
 Slanting
 
 Force
 
 Equivocation
 
 Scare Tactics
 
 Loaded Language
 
 Pity
 
 Poisoning the Well
 
 Reward
 
 Stacking the Deck
 
 Hasty Generalization
 
 
 
 
 
 DISTRACTIONS
 
 COMPARISONS/ANALYSIS 
 
 Character Attack
 
 Composition
 
 Name Calling
 
 Division
 
 Falsification
 
 False Analogy
 
 Shifting the Burden of Proof
 
 Genetic
 
 Evading the Issue
 
 Moral Equivalence
 
 Red Herring
 
 Overgeneralization
 
 Loaded Question
 
 Simple Speech
 
 Rhetorical Question
 
 Stereotype
 
 
 
 Straw Man
 
 
 
 PREMISES/CONCLUSIONS
 
 INTERNET LINKS 
 
 Circular Reasoning
 
 Informal Fallacies
 
 Dogmatism
 
 Recognizing Logical Fallacies
 
 Either/Or (False Dilemma)
 
 Logic
 
 False Authority
 
 Center for Critical Thinking
 
 Invincible Ignorance
 
 Logic in Argumentative Writing
 
 False Cause
 
 The Promise Trap
 
 Non Sequitur
 
 
 
 Only Reason (Oversimplification)
 
 
 
 Slippery Slope
 
 
 Tradition
 
 
 
 
Logical Analysis of Recent Presidential Speeches
   Color Analysis of Speeches on Prosperity, by Gore (9/6/00) and Bush (9/28/00)
   Color Analysis of Speeches on Medicare, by Gore (9/25/00) and Bush (9/5/00)
   Logical Critique of Bush's Speech Promoting Faith-Based Charities (29 January 2001)
   Logical Critique of Bush's Radio Address on Education (27 January 2001)
   Logical Critique of Bush's Speech Promoting His Education Plan (23 January 2001)
   Logical Critique of Bush's Acceptance Speech (3 August 2000)
   Logical Critique of Gore's Acceptance Speech (17 August 2000)